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PHP PDO extension

In this post, we will explore the PDO extension of PHP, another way to communicate with our database and make changes to it. Here, we will delve into what this extension is about


The PDO extension is a database access interface that provides an abstraction layer for interacting with databases from PHP applications.

PDO allows developers to write code that is independent of the database management system (DBMS). The extension supports a wide range of database drivers, including the following:

  • MS SQL Server
  • Firebird
  • IBM
  • Informix
  • MySQL
  • MS SQL Server
  • Oracle
  • ODBC y DB2
  • PostgreSQL
  • SQLite

The PDO extension is divided into several classes, which are: PDO, PDOStatement, and PDOException.

Summary of the classes

In this section, we will see a brief summary of what the classes that are part of the extension do.


The PDO class represents a connection between PHP and a database server.


The PDOStatement class in PHP represents a prepared SQL query. It provides methods to execute the query, retrieve results, and securely bind parameters.

Additionally, it allows obtaining metadata about the query and handling errors through exceptions (PDOException).


The PDOException class in PHP represents an exception that is thrown when an error related to the database occurs while using the PDO (PHP Data Objects) extension.

This exception provides detailed information about the error, including the error message and specific code, allowing developers to identify and handle connection or query issues effectively.


PDO provides a series of advantages for developers, including:

Database Independence: PDO allows developers to write code that is independent of the database management system (DBMS). This means that the code can be reused in applications using different DBMS without the need for changes.

Standardization: PDO uses a standardized syntax for accessing data, making it easier to learn and use PDO.

Security: PDO provides a set of security functions that help protect database data.

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